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 Term 2 Water

Unit 1

LEARNING UNIT: Water – I use

 

Class:   STD 2   Theme: My Country: The Environment of Trinidad and Tobago – Water

Estimated frame:  4 weeks

 

Context:

 

Water is vital to human existence; it sustains life and serves many essential purposes. It is imperative that we conserve this resource. To facilitate this, we need to develop a society that has a heightened level of sensitivity to evolving critical water-related issues. We also need citizens to have an increased awareness of the interdependence that exists between the natural world and man. Awareness of these increases the likelihood of having greater willingness and capacity to use this valuable resource with discretion. Educating our students on the properties, uses and importance of water is one of the best ways to ensure that this happens.

Outcomes:

 

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         explain the procedure and rear fish employing good environmental practices

·         display teamwork and safety practices in the rearing of fish

·         demonstrate responsibility and a nurturing attitude when rearing fish

·         recognize water as a valuable resource

·         identify the sources of water and recognize that water is essential to life

·         appreciate the importance of water to life

·         explain personal hygiene

·         state the months of the year in Spanish

·         engage in exploration of language through comparing words of different languages

·         state the month of their birthday in Spanish

·         engage in exploration of language through comparing words of different languages

·         categorize matter into the three basic states:

o   solids,

o   liquids, and

o   gases

·         explain that matter can change states

o   water

o   carbon dioxide (dry ice)

·         name common substances that can be dissolved in water

·         explain the terms: solute, solvent and solution

·         conduct experiments to demonstrate substances that can be dissolved in water

·         demonstrate a basic understanding of the terms property, sustainability and “respect for the environment”

·         display respect for self, others and the environment

·         give simple justifications for respectful exchanges between persons

·         demonstrate a basic understanding of fairness

·         give simple justification for acting fairly

·         demonstrate a basic understanding of “discretion” and “tact”

·         demonstrate  basic understanding of good citizenship

·         create group tableaux depicting water features

·         work effectively as a team player

·         use ideas /sounds from the daily use of water to influence movement possibilities

·         play ostinato (repeated patterns) on melodic instruments to accompany familiar songs

·         give reasons why persons should respect public places

Oral Communication:

·         know appropriate listening behaviours

·         know skills of oral expression applicable to level

·         know strategies to aid comprehension at the pre-listening, during-listening and post-listening stages

·         know how to use the 5Ws+H to gain meaning from audio/audio-visual texts

·         know appropriate listening and speaking behaviours

·         basic and applicable contrastive analysis of Creole and Standard English

·         know basic skills in Standard English pronunciation and enunciation

·         know features of Standard English phonology applicable to this level

·         locate and infer information using a variety of text features and structures

·         know how to write cursive through penmanship exercises

Literary Appreciation

·         know about the appropriateness of language as used in narration and dialogue

Reading

·         apply appropriate phonic skills and strategies in reading

·         apply spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams in reading and writing

·         recall vocabulary knowledge in speaking, reading and writing

·         demonstrate the meaning of figurative language in texts

·         read grade level texts (fiction and non-fiction) proficiently

·         apply reading skills strategically

·         read to learn

·         apply appropriate reading comprehension skills and strategies explicitly taught to make meaning

·         locate and infer information using a variety of text features and structures

·         use research to acquire meaning

Writing

·   know how to write cursive through penmanship exercises

·   know the rules of punctuation and capitalization

·   know that a subject must agree in number with a verb

·  know how to use the different tenses of verbs: simple present, present continuous, simple past and future within context correctly

·   add prefixes and suffixes to root words to make and use new words in context

·   know the functions of the different parts of speech: noun, verb, adjective, and pronoun

·   how to combine simple sentences to form compound sentences

·   how to write friendly letters using a process approach, including the address on an envelope

·   understand the stages of the process approach in writing:

prewriting

drafting

revising

editing

publishing

·   know how to write e-mails

·   know how to write two descriptive paragraphs that appeal to the senses using the process approach

·   use technical jargon to show meaning

·   use context to arrive at word meanings

·   know how to use spelling rules when writing:

·   syllabication rules

·   phonics

·   inflectional Endings

·   convert the spoken Creole patterns into the equivalent Standard English patterns

Media & Information Literacy

·         begin to respond critically to audio texts

·         demonstrate an understanding of the purpose of a variety of media texts

·         understand that all media are constructions where authors and illustrators construct a reality for their audiences

·         identify selected media forms and explain what techniques are used to create meaning

·         create audio texts for different purposes and audiences

·         recognize and explore number patterns up to 1 000 (using appropriate resources such as base ten materials, counters, number lines and hundred charts).

·         solve a variety of word problems from real-life, using problem solving strategies and mental strategies

·         demonstrate a conceptual understanding of multiplication and division

·         solve problem involving multiplication and division

·         demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction

·         use estimation skills to determine reasonableness of answers

·         develop an understanding that measures can be quantified using standard units (litres)

·         distinguish between standard and non-standard units of measure for capacity

·         apply measurement techniques to quantify measures

·         solve problems involving capacity

·         demonstrate the ability to formulate a problem

·         demonstrate the ability to collect, classify, organize, represent and interpret data

·         demonstrate an understanding about the features of graphs and charts

·         use analyzed data to make sound decisions and solve problems

·         demonstrate the ability to present findings orally or in writing

·         demonstrate an understanding of the methods used to address the problem

·         employ healthy habits as part of their daily life style

Learning Plans:

 

1.    Water we need you!

2.    Water, water where are you?

3.    Respect our environment

4.    Fish fun

5.    We all have a role

6.    Water in all things

7.    The sounds of water

Resources:

Learning plan 1 – Factual passage, Visual map to be projected on the screen, individual maps for students, poem, flipchart/ whiteboard/ chalkboard, drinking utensils.

Learning plan 2 – Poem, worksheet, blank tally chart, water in three states (solid, liquid, gas), bottle with water, flashcards

Learning plan 3 – Poem – Respect the Water, Walter, flash cards, graph paper, blank paper

Learning plan 4 – Story about “Fish Farming”, worksheets, containers of various sizes, aquarium, fish.

Learning plan 5 – Factual passage, flipchart paper or bristol board, pictures related to passage, glue, paint, crayons, markers, paintbrushes. Printed strips – rights of citizens. Videoclips.

Learning plan 6 – Data cards, templates, teaspoons,  bottles of water (250ml each),  clear plastic cups(250ml), salt, brown sugar, granulated sugar, gelatin (Jello), sand, marbles, packets of ketchup, sesame seeds, time pieces (watches, clocks, stopwatches etc.),recording template, reporting template, labels: Solute, Solvent and Solution, Comprehension worksheet

Learning plan 7 – rain stick, plastic bottles filled with beads, beans and rice, worksheets.

Assessments:

 

·         Discussion

·         Oral questioning

·         Presentation

·         Observation Checklists

·         Rubrics 

·         Worksheets

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T: Water

Learning Plan: 1 of  7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: 1½  days

Topic:  Water! We need you!

Context:

Water is an essential resource for all life on the earth. Many view water as a renewable resource, but we must also be aware of the consequences of its exploitation. It is advisable to sensitize students to the importance of water in our daily lives. This would be best done through engagement with a variety of integrated activities.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:

Effective Communication

Literacy

RReading

RWriting

R Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

R ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         state what is a resource

·         give reasons why water is considered a resource

·         practise personal hygiene (using rag, soap, deodorant)

·         name the main water sources in Trinidad and Tobago

·         locate on a map of Trinidad and Tobago where the main sources of water are found

·         recite water related poems with a sense of rhythm

·         select and apply appropriate word analysis skills to unfamiliar words to read literary texts

·         identify key words when scanning texts to establish relevance

·         write neatly and legibly

·         work together using bodies to create a tableau (frozen image) depicting water related activities

·         create a dance sequence using at least four water related movements (note: could be linked to previous outcome)

·         play two repeated patterns (ostinati) on melodic instruments to accompany familiar songs, using appropriate technique

·         consider the impact of their behaviour on others during recreational activities

·         describe ways in which fairness can be shown to others during recreational activities.

Tasks:

Water as a Resource

1.    Students are presented with a copy of a passage and are guided to engage in pre-reading activities. (As part of the pre-reading activity, a list of possible questions can be generated, regarding what they will be looking for in the passage – e.g. definitions of ‘resource’, reasons for water as a resource etc.)

2.    Text features are highlighted and students are guided to focus on titles, pictures, captions, and headings as these relate to the meaning of text.

3.    Students listen to the (factual) passage – presented either as a read-aloud or as an audio recording.

4.    Students are guided to identify the genre of the text.

5.    They orally answer questions based on passage.

6.    Key words are identified and word analysis skills are used for decoding. New vocabulary is also identified and discussed.

7.    Passage is further discussed and students extract details about what is a resource as well as why water is considered a resource. These responses are neatly and legibly written.

Taking Care of Myself with Water

8.    Students are placed in groups. Each group is presented with a picture of a body part e.g. teeth, ear, body etc.

9.    Students in each group discuss and write the steps involved in brushing the teeth, washing the face etc.  They then role play cleaning their given body part then explain the process to their classmates emphasising the proper use of water.

10. Two or three more of the same cards are given to each group. Students would create “Why, How, When and What if” questions about that body part. One question would be written on each card.

11. The question cards are stuck picture side up on the board. Each group takes a turn to select a picture of a body part other than the one they worked on.

12. They read and quickly discuss the within group. One member of the group answers the question. This process continues until all the cards are exhausted.

 

Optional

·         This activity can be done in the form of a game whereby the teacher tallies correct responses on the board to arrive at a winner. 

·         Teacher can also supply questions to the bank.

Journey to Trini and Bago

13. Students use different parts of their body to produce sounds. (clapping, stomping of feet, vocals relating to water  e.g. splash etc.). They proceed to create one pattern combining any two of the sounds (e.g. clap clap splash).

a.    This pattern is repeated and used as an accompaniment to the journey on the visual map that will be projected on the screen.

14. Students are each given a map containing some symbols. This map contains symbols representing the water sources in Trinidad and Tobago as well as other detracting symbols (distractors). The students are instructed that the water droplet symbols represent the areas of the water sources. They are given a few minutes to familiarise themselves with their maps.

15. The map of Trinidad and Tobago is projected onto a screen.  As the cursor moves over the map, the sound pattern created by the students is repeated until the cursor reaches a water source. At this point the students say “splash”. (Any other word related to sounds created by water can be used). 

16. As the symbol on the map is clicked, the name of the water source will be displayed.  Students read the name aloud, locate it on their maps and legibly write the name on their map.

17. This process continues until all the water sources have been identified and the names inserted on the maps.

Alternative: The teacher can use a large map of Trinidad and Tobago. Students will be invited to use knowledge of the symbols to locate the areas where water sources are located. All students are then invited to locate the site on their copies of the map

Acceptable Behaviour

 

18. Students participate in a shared reading activity using a poem. It is read with appropriate rhythm. Teacher models and guides students. The recreational activities described in the poem are orally identified.

19. Students discuss what they observe during the identified activities.

a.    e.g. What unacceptable behaviour can you identify?

                                          i.    In what ways can persons can be encouraged to display acceptable behaviour.

20. Students identify instances in the poem in which persons were being treated unfairly. These are listed.

21. Students are placed in groups. Each group analyses one of the scenarios above and identifies ways in which persons could have treated others more fairly.

22. Each group is required to share their suggestions with the class in a plenary session.

Freezing Flowing

 

23. Students brainstorm to identify a variety of verbs related to water. (E.g. drinking, swimming, bathing, gargling).These verbs are recorded by the teacher on a flipchart sheet or board.

24. Students perform actions using objects such as cups, bottles, glasses etc. to demonstrate drinking. The objects are removed and students recreate the action without them paying attention to details.  Other actions are then demonstrated. 

25. Students are put into groups of three or four and each group selects at least four verbs to be depicted.  Each group decides the sequence of movement. They then discuss the manner in which these movements are to be executed as they move from freeze into flow.  They are given the opportunity to rehearse and make revisions as necessary.

26. They freeze into position and these images are “brought to life” by unfreezing the actions and flowing smoothly into another action to form a simple movement sequence e.g. drinking then swimming then bathing then rowing. 

Suggestion: These verbs can be performed in any order and this order can also be changed.

Resources

Factual passage

Visual map to be projected on the screen

Individual maps for students

Poem

Flipchart/ Whiteboard/ Chalkboard

Drinking utensils

Assessment:

Oral questioning

Worksheets to identify water sources

Presentation of repeated patterns & movements

   

Factual Passage:

Water – A Natural Resource

A natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. Natural resources can be renewable, or non-renewable. Renewable resources can be replenished when some is used up. Non-renewable resources cannot be replaced when used. Some examples of renewable resources are land, water and forests.  Non-renewable resources include oil and gas.

Although water is a renewable natural resource but it should still be used wisely.  It is one of the most important resources because all living things depend on it for survival. Water is obtained from rainfall, rivers, lakes and ponds, springs, waterfalls and melting ice.

There are many uses of water.  A vast array of food for human consumption comes from our seas, rivers and lakes and ponds.  This food includes fish, shrimp, lobster, oysters, conchs and some seaweeds. Plants and animals need an adequate supply of water to survive.  A person cannot live without water for more than about three days.  Water is used for maintaining cleanliness in our bodies as well as in our home and work environment.  In industries, water is used for cooling machinery just as it is used to cool the engines of the vehicles we use every day.  It is used as an ingredient in several medications and it is needed to accommodate yachts and boats for recreational activities such as sailing, swimming, fishing and skiing. 

When we consider the very many uses of water we must agree that it should be used with great care so that there would always be an adequate supply for all the plants, animals and people who depend on it for their survival. 

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T:Water

Learning Plan: 2 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: 2 days

Topic:  Water, water where are you?

Context:

 

To help students develop a positive attitude to water conservation, it is necessary to help them understand 1) what water is 2) the uses to which it can be put and 3) the ways in which a lack of access to water can affect their daily lives. The activities in this unit aim to help students develop positive attitudes to water and their role in conserving this resource.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:

Cooperation

Choose an item.

Literacy

RReading

RWriting

R Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

☐ Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

R Communication

R Representation

☐ Reasoning

R ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for Learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         state the uses of water

·         state some of the consequences of not giving citizens equal access to resources

·         define “discretion” and “tact”

·         begin to understand that diplomacy involves the use of discretion

·         choose appropriate words to express their thoughts and feelings

·         collect and classify data

·         categorize matter into the three basic states: solids, liquids and gases

·         recognize that matter can change states

·         recite poems with a sense of rhythm and with the required articulation

·         select and apply appropriate word analysis skills to unfamiliar words

·         write neatly and legibly

·         accept the ideas of their peers and share ideas of their own towards the common task.

Tasks:

Water: I’m used for…

1.    Students sit in a circle and a bottle of water is passed around. 

2.    They are told that there are many uses of water and students are asked to state one use of water when the bottle reaches to them. Music plays as the bottle passes. When the music stops, the person who holds the bottle gives a response starting with “I am used for”.  If the person has already received the bottle then it is passed to the next person.

Alternative: students can build on previous responses.

3.    Students are then given an activity to complete a graphic organiser. Teacher scaffolds activity as needed.

Water character!

 

What if…….

 

4.    Students are asked: What if citizens couldn’t access potable water? (They are invited to think about possible answers to the question)

Students are taken on a virtual tour and then work in small groups with given resource materials to find possible answers to the presented problem.

5.    Teacher guides students through discussion to elicit reasons for having access to potable water as an established right.

6.    Students are invited to identify some of the responsibilities citizens would have in relation to conservation of water as a resource.  (Students are allowed to choose their mode of presentation).

Examples: graphic organisers, poems, songs, stories, speeches etc.)

Presentation Etiquette

7.    Using flashcards the teacher introduces students to the terms: “discretion” and “tact”.

Through questioning and appropriate examples teacher helps students to understand the meanings of the words presented. (Note: The words can be better understood if they are presented in context. Students can also use them in context as they talk about their own play experiences or other experiences where applicable.)

8.    Students are guided through discussion to understand the benefits of acting tactfully and with discretion during activities.

9.    The teacher writes the word “diplomacy” on the chalk or white board. The teacher first models how she syllabicates and then pronounces the word

10. Students are invited to read along with the teacher. The teacher passes a pointer under each letter or letter sequence as she reads with the students. Students are encouraged to discuss key features of the word (Sound units, blends, number of letters, etc.)

11. Through guided discussion they are led to understand the meaning of the term and how it relates to the two previously learnt words (“discretion” and “tact”).

Presentations

12. Teams present the ideas derived from their discussions about citizens’ responsibilities re water conservation.  Classmates are reminded to exercise tact and discretion when sharing their views on the presentations given by others.

Water’s the matter?

 

Water in three states

13. Students conduct experiments that will allow them to conclude that water exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas.

 

Suggested Activities:

Change of State

a)    Solid to Liquid:

a.    Show a block of ice melting.

b.    Show other items: ice cream, lollies, “Freezies”, ‘pennacool’ etc. melting

b)   Liquid to Solid:

a.    Water to ice

b.    Show other liquids solidifying.

c)    Liquid to Gas

a.    Boiling water to show steam

b.    Showing evaporation using sunlight: putting a container of water in the sun, wetting a piece of fabric/paper towel and placing it in the sunlight.

d)   Solid to Gas

a.    Compressed Carbon Dioxide (dry ice)

Focus on properties of each state of matter.

14. Given Chart 1(see below), students brainstorm to identify other materials and/or substances in the environment that they can classify as solids, liquids and gases.

Solids

Liquids

Gases

   
   
   

Chart 1

15. Using correctly placed examples provided by students, teacher leads a discussion on the similarities and differences that exist among solids, liquids and gases.

16. Teacher guides discussion to bring children to an understanding of the terms: “properties” and “matter”.

Properties: (Distinguishing features) characteristics that help us to distinguish or tell the differences between materials or substances.

Matter: Anything that occupies space and has a mass. All matter is made up of particles.

Mass: the amount of matter in a substance

Classifying solids, liquids and gases

17. Teacher uses appropriate actual samples, diagrams and images to help students understand that:

·      When particles are very tightly packed the object is classified as a solid. Solids have a definite shape.

·      When particles are packed less tightly and the material or substance can flow, it is classified as a liquid. Liquids take the shape of the container in which they are placed.

·      Gases are usually invisible; the particles in a gas move freely. While it is not easy to contain gases, they can be compressed and made to occupy less space.

18. Students are given the preceding information on worksheets. They work in teams to create checklist that they can used to easily classify given materials and substances.

19. Students revisit Chart 1 and make adjustments/corrections where necessary.

20.  Students are paired and given samples or images of objects or materials.  They will be required to use the criteria developed above to classify these as solids, liquids or gases.

21. The teacher presents (or projects) Chart 2 on the chalkboard or whiteboard and works with students to complete the column for “Solids”.

Solids

Liquids

Gases

 

  

 

  

 

  

Chart 2

22. Students continue to work in their pairs to complete the columns for “Liquids” and “Gases” on their own charts.

23. Students are guided through a discussion to summarise the key points of the session.

Bridging waters

 

Matter Matters©

 

A solid is a solid

It just stays there

A liquid it flows everywhere

Gas we may not always see

But it’s all around you and me.

Ostinato (line to be repeated): Matter is most everywhere

24. Children recite poem with focus on rhythm and articulation with teacher guidance.

25. Students are grouped and allowed to create a poem using the following template:

A solid is a solid

……………………………….

A liquid ………………………

Gas ……………………….….

But it’s ……………………….

Resources:  Poem, worksheet, blank tally chart, water in three states (solid, liquid, gas), bottle with water, flashcards

Assessment:

·         Oral questioning

·         Completion of template for poem and tally chart

·         Worksheets

   

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T:Water

Learning Plan: 3 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: 2 days

Topic:  Respect our Environment

Context:

It is crucial that students develop a healthy respect for the natural environment. This can be done by helping students to recognise that water, a key element of the natural environment, is not merely something that exists but something that enhances their daily lives. Bringing students to understand the shared responsibility all human beings have to safeguard this resource, will bring them closer to willingly doing their part to boost environmental sustainability.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:

Creative Thinking

Understanding Consequences

Literacy

☐Reading

RWriting

☐ Oral Communication

R Literary Appreciation

☐ Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

R Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

R Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

Assessment for Learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         describe ways in which respect for the environment can be demonstrated

·         examine the ways in which respect (for the environment) can boost environmental sustainability

·         give reasons why persons should respect laws governing access to public space

·         recite poems with a sense of rhythm and with the required articulation and intonation

·         select and apply appropriate word analysis skills to unfamiliar words to read literary texts

·         write neatly and legibly 

·         compose simple forms of poetry (the Haiku)

·         use the frequency count from tally charts to construct a block graph of scale factor 1:1

·         construct block graphs (vertical or horizontal arrangements) on grid paper based on information

·         label axes and name the graph

·         interpret and analyse the data so as to make decisions about a real life situation or problem

·         participate in decision-making to solve problems

·         communicate findings and justify decisions made using appropriate vocabulary (orally or in writing)

·         describe the method used to solve a problem or address a situation.

Tasks:

 

 Walter, Respect the Water

1.    Poem – “Walter, Respect the Water” is read by teacher. Focus is placed on comprehension, spelling words and vocabulary development.

2.     A discussion about “respect” is initiated.

a)    Students are invited to share their thoughts on the term “respect”

b)    Students are guided to share their thoughts on “respect for the environment”

c)    Using thoughts shared students construct a definition for the term “respect for the environment”

3.    Students are asked about ways in which they can show respect for the environment.

4.    The poem is presented and students participate in a shared reading activity.

5.    This opportunity is used to track understanding of the topic thus far. Relevant questions are asked at intervals during the reading. Examples include:

a)    What are some of the reasons we need water?

b)    Name some of the water sources mentioned in the poem.

c)    What are some of the bad habits (that harm our environment) we should refrain from practising?

6.    The words “sustainable” and “drinkable” are highlighted.

a)    The word “sustainable” is pronounced by the teacher as a pointer is run from left to right under the word.

b)    The affix “-able” is isolated and pronounced.

c)     An explanation for the suffix “-able” and the way in which it changes the function of the word sustain is given.

d)    Other examples of words with the suffix “-able” are provided by the teacher. Using knowledge of the meaning of “-able” students infer the meanings of the new words.

Poetic Flow

7.    Haikus are introduced to students by the teacher by first reviewing syllables.

 

 “A syllable is a part of a word pronounced as a unit. It is usually made up of a vowel alone or a vowel with one or more consonants. E.g. The word “Haiku” has two syllables: Hai-ku; the word “introduction” has four syllables: in-tro-duc-tion.

 

The “Haiku” is a traditional form of Japanese poetry. Haiku poems consist of 3 lines. The first and last lines of a Haiku have 5 syllables and the middle line has 7 syllables. The lines rarely rhyme.

 

Here’s a Haiku to help you remember:

      I am first with five
Then seven in the middle —
Five again to end.

 

Because Haikus are such short poems, they are usually written about things that are recognizable to the reader.”

8.    Students are guided to develop and write a Haiku based on “water”

9.    Students write the developed poem neatly and legibly by observing spacing and letter formation.

10. Students read the created poem on a whole-class basis and practice correct rhythm, articulation and intonation.

11. Students are given an opportunity to memorize the poem and then (later in the day) are required to recite the poem with correct rhythm, articulation and intonation. 

Making What Counts Count

12. Children conduct a survey to get views on the statement: Students can do a great deal to preserve water resources found in Trinidad and Tobago. (Teacher can use another statement related to the topic). Views are recorded using tally marks on a table similar to the one shown below:

VIEW

TALLY

FREQUENCY

Strongly Agree

  

Agree

  

Disagree

  

Strongly Disagree

  

Suggestion:

Survey can be extended to other classes to increase the sample size or the number of categories for which views (strongly agree, agree, etc.) are to be collected can be reduced depending on the class size.

13. Teacher guides students to use the frequency count from the tally chart to construct a block graph using a 1: 1 ratio.

14. Students, together with the teacher, calculate the amounts to be represented on the block graph using the scale factor 1:1. They then use given templates to construct the graph: they label the axes, fill in the blocks and name the graph.

15. Students, using various prompts from the teacher, interpret and analyse the data presented on their graphs. e.g Which option did most people select?

16. Based on findings, students suggest ways in which they could inform fellow students of methods that can be used to preserve water resources.

17. Students are then placed in groups. They discuss further the suggestions generated above. Each group is directed to select the method that they would prefer to use to complete the assigned task.

Options could include:

·         Posters

·         Oral or PPT Presentations

·         Lists

·         Skit

Teacher can provide students with criteria that they could use to make their decisions. e.g skills and talents of members, resources that are available, the age range of the audience for whom the work is to be prepared, the number of persons for whom the work is to be prepared, etc.

18. Along with the completed item, each group is asked to submit a summary report. In this report they are to provide

·         two reasons for having selected the method they used to share topic-related information with colleagues.

·         a brief description of the steps taken to execute the project.

19. A story which highlights respect for the environment is presented to the students.

Purpose: to provide students with the opportunity to talk about what they read as they read it.

20. Procedure:

21. Students are grouped into threes or fours.

22. Students are informed of the points at which they should stop and think about what they have read.

23. Students read to the first stopping point and then pause to think about the reading. They might consider such issues as what they found interesting or puzzling. They may make brief notes about their thoughts.

24. Students select and apply appropriate word analysis skills to unfamiliar words as they read the text.

They also use dictionaries to locate meanings of unfamiliar words. Students use this process to make relationships between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable, and word levels to figure out unfamiliar words.

More proficient readers can focus on the meanings and spellings of prefixes, root words, and suffixes. For example, students are asked to divide compound words or to underline the root word or the affix in words with prefixes and/or suffixes.

25. The members of each group will then talk amongst themselves using their notes to remind them of the points they wish to highlight.

26. The students share, focusing on interesting issues that arose during the small group discussions. Length of time allocated for the exercise will depend on students’ needs and interest.

27. This completes the first Think and Share cycle. Students can read the next portion of the story and begin the cycle again.

28. In their reading, students are guided to focus on examining the ways in which respect (for the environment) can boost environmental sustainability. These points are discussed as they arise.

29. As a class, students list reasons why persons should have respect for laws governing access to public space.

Resources:  

Poem – Respect the Water, graph paper, blank paper, flash cards

Assessment:

Worksheets on suffixes – words and sentences.

Creation of poem

Create block graph

Oral responses

   

Resource Poems:

Poem:

Walter, Respect the Water

Respect the water, Walter!

We need it for life.

To wash our clothes, our hands, our toes,

To prevent unhealthy living and strife.

Don’t disrespect the waters, Walter!

You need to care for all of them!

Hillsborough Reservoir, Caroni Swamp and more

So they will still be here for our children.

Respect the water, Walter!

So our water can remain drinkable

For this generation and the next,

Let’s keep this resource sustainable.

Don’t disrespect our waters, Walter!

Keep our beaches and rivers clean.

Don’t dump bottle caps and paper wraps,

As that will be so mean.

Thank you for respecting the water, Walter.

What you are doing is the right way to go.

Share this news and remove the blues,

For a brighter Trinidad and Tobago.

© Anderson La Barrie 2013

 

Example of a Water Haiku

“Water Cool, Clear, Refreshing
Rushing, Gushing, Ride the Tide
Try to stay afloat”

   UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T: Water

Learning Plan: 4 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: (as needed for project)

Topic:  Fish Fun

Context:

Over 70% of Earth’s surface is covered with water. This makes understanding water an important aspect of understanding the earth and its inhabitants.  The activities here are aimed at allowing students to gain an appreciation of water and its purpose. Students will also develop an understanding of good environmental and safety practices as they engage in hands-on activities.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:
Critical Thinking

Choose an item.

Literacy

RReading

☐Writing

R Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

R Problem Solving

R Critical thinking

R Communication

R Representation

R Reasoning

ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for Learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         choose appropriate words to express their thoughts and feelings

·         examine the ways in which respect (for the environment) can boost environmental sustainability

·         sequence the steps involved in rearing fishes

·         state at least one good environmental practice when rearing fishes

·         rear a fish, real or virtual, using good environmental practices

·         display collaboration, safety practices and responsible behaviour in caring for fishes and the environment

·         accept the ideas of their peers and share ideas of their own towards the common task

·         select appropriate word analysis skills and apply to unfamiliar words to read literary texts

·         use picture, word, definition and context clues and prior knowledge to infer meanings in context and apply in speaking, reading and writing

·         solve one-step and two-step real-life addition and subtraction problems (including bills up to $100.00, dollars only, and cents only, with and without change) using a variety of problem solving strategies

·         solve problems in real life situations involving 

·         determine the capacity of containers using non-standard units.

·         explain the reasonableness of answers by using estimation.

   

 

 

Tasks:

Here Fishy, Fishy

1.    Students who have fishes or had previously reared fishes are given an opportunity to share their experiences. Listeners are encouraged to be respectful of others by listening attentively and choosing appropriate words when expressing their thoughts and feelings. (i.e. Words which do not hurt/offend others)

2.    They then listen as they are presented with a story about children who wanted to rear fishes as a hobby.

·      Students discuss the events of the story and suggest what steps the children should have been taken to arrive at a more successful outcome for their project.

·      Students are given a worksheet with the outline of a fish. They use this to sequence the steps involved in rearing fishes.

Healthy Fishes

3.    Teacher informs students that they are going to rear tilapia as a class project. Students discuss steps to be followed in setting up the aquarium for rearing tilapia.

4.    Students explore a suitable location, indoor or outdoor for their aquarium. They state reasons why the location would be suitable. If it is practical, an outdoor aquarium can be built. They then formulate/compile a checklist of the items needed for setting up the aquarium. (see Table 1)

(As an alternative, students could rear virtual fish, using the same principles of good environmental practices etc. which apply to real fish. In either case all students should be given equal opportunity to care for the fish.)

5.    Students identify some factors which may adversely affect their fishes then suggest and list precautions which should be taken.

6.    They also identify good environmental practices in which they should engage when rearing fishes.

· They compare their suggestions to to environmental practices in which fish farmers engage.

 

 

Suggestion:

Students could be taken on a field trip to visit a pet store to view and select the required items. Here they examine aquaria of different shapes and sizes and suggest with reasons, which should be chosen. The checklist (see Table 1) would be completed as the items are sourced.

 

Fish For Sale

7.    The items listed below (see Table 3) would be used to solve one-step and two-step real-life addition and subtraction problems.  e.g. What would be the cost of 9 fishes and 2 bags of stones for the aquarium? How much change would we receive if we pay with $100.00? Given that students have only $100.00 to spend, suggest items which can be bought to set up the aquarium (use the price list below –Table 2).

8.    Students fill in the information in Tables 3 and 4 after discussion of the problems. Students write the statements, working and solutions for the problems in their exercise books.

Daily fishing

9.    Teacher shares expectations for the project

·         Students would be expected to keep a journal to record the growth of the fish, daily activities and personal responses to the project.

·         Students would be required to write in cursive form paying careful attention to proper letter formation.

10.  Students will set up their aquarium and begin the rearing of fishes following guidelines previously discussed.

11. While filling the tank, concepts related to capacity will be reinforced.

·         Students will be asked to:

a)    select the container (from a given set e.g. pot spoon, cup, jug) that will need to be filled the least/most number of times in order to fill the tank

b)    through experimentation and teacher guidance, estimate the number of ‘containers’ of a given size it would take to fill the tank, etc.

c)    give reasons for their suggestions and verify estimates

·         The concepts will be reinforced when the tank is emptied for cleaning.

a)    Students should be given the opportunity to experiment with the suggested capacities and artificial fishes to decide which container(s) is/are most appropriate for storing the fish while the tank is cleaned.

(Considerations: height of water from the top of the aquarium, adequate room to accommodate the growth of the fish, etc. )

 

Fishy Stories

12. Students are given expository text about fish farming. As the passage is read by the teacher, the students follow and note words which might be unfamiliar to them.

13. With the assistance of the teacher they select appropriate word analysis skills which they would apply to make meaning of the texts.

14. Students are encouraged to use picture, word, definition and context clues and prior knowledge to infer meanings in context and apply in speaking, reading and writing.

 

Resources:  

Story about “Fish Farming”, worksheets, containers of various sizes, aquarium, fish.

Assessment:

·         Oral questioning

·         Completion of Table

·         Journal reflecting written documentation

·         Worksheets

Story

Walter and Sandra were excited when their teacher announced that soon the class would be doing a project on rearing fishes. On their way home from school, they bought some four fishes at the pet shop. The owner of the pet shop put the fishes in a bag and Walter and Sandra hustled home quite happy to start rearing fishes. “This could be the start of our business!” Walter announced to his mother. I have already thought of a name. Walter showed his mother a page with the words “Fish From Water”. “Water?” asked his mother.  “I think you misspelt your name, Walter.” Walter smiled at his mother. “No Mom!” he explained. “I did it on purpose. Everyone knows we get fish from water.”  The entire family broke out into

…to be continued………

THE STEPS INVOLVED IN REARING FISHES

Table 1

CHECKLIST FOR ITEMS NEEDED FOR REARING FISHES

 

ITEM

COMMENTS

1

Aquarium/tank

Check prices of various sizes

2

Fishes

 

3

Weeds

 

4

Fish food

Compare prices of different sizes

5

Stones

 

6

Pump

Teacher will sponsor a pump if needed.

7

  

Table 2

ESTIMATE FOR REARING FISHES

ITEM

COST (students source information)

Stones

$15.00 per bag

Fishes

$5.00 for 3

Aquatic plants

 

Fish food

$15.00 for a small pkt.

Fish food

$20.00 for a large pkt.

Pump

 

Fish castle

 

Other ornament

 

Table 3

COST OF SETTING UP AQUARIUM

Quantity

Item

Price

Thinking/Solution

TOTAL COST

9

fishes

$5.00 for 3

eg.$5.00+$5.00+$5.00

$A

2

bags of stones

$15.00

eg. $15.00 +$15.00

$B

 

TOTAL COST

 

A +B =$ C

$C

     
     

Table 4

Quantity

Item

Price

Thinking/Solution

TOTAL COST

     
     
     
     
     

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T:Water

Learning Plan: 5 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: 2 days

Topic:  We all have a role

Context:

 

In this learning plan there will be a focus on the organisations which are responsible for managing water resources in our country. Students will be guided, through the related activities to develop an understanding of their rights as citizens. They will also be taught how to distinguish rights from privileges. Engagement with this content will enable students to acquire skills, which are essential for their personal growth and development.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:
Effective Communication

Choose an item.

Literacy

RReading

☐Writing

☐ Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for Learning

Outcomes:

 At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         describe the role played by the government agencies

(W.A.S.A. and W.R.A.) responsible for management and

distribution of water in Trinidad and Tobago

·         differentiate between rights and privileges

·         list some of the rights to which citizens are entitled

·         accept the ideas of their peers and share ideas of their own towards the common task

·         select and apply appropriate word analysis skills to unfamiliar words to read literary (and expository) texts

·         use picture, word, definition and context clues and prior knowledge to infer meanings in context and apply in speaking, reading and writing

·         give benefits of drinking water after a physical activity

·         apply knowledge of inference and deduction to identify cause and effect relationships in texts

·         use the dictionary and thesaurus to acquire meanings of words in context

·         reproduce correct cursive writing patterns, formation, spacing and neatness in their writing.

   

 

Tasks:

WASA and WRA

1.    Students listen to a factual passage being read.

2.    Students are each given a copy and are asked to read the passage.

3.    New words are identified and appropriate word analysis skills are applied to decode words. 

4.    Dictionaries are used to locate/confirm meanings of unfamiliar words. 

5.    Pertinent information is then extracted from the passage as guided by the teacher. 

These include:

·  Meaning of acronyms W.A.S.A. and W.R.A.

·  Role of W.A.S.A. and W.R.A. etc.

6.    The information extracted is further discussed and clarified by the teacher.  The importance of these organisations is emphasised.

7.    Students are then placed into two groups: W.A.S.A. and W.R.A.  They use relevant materials and are instructed to create a chart. On this chart they are required to:

·         List the role of the organisation to which they were assigned.

·         Create a picture to depict any aspect of the role played by the organisation which they researched. (this is drawn/painted/stuck etc. onto the chart)

8.    Each group is given an opportunity to share.

9.    These charts would be displayed in the classroom.

 

Rights or Privilege?

 

10. Students use dictionaries to locate the meanings of these two words: “Right” and “Privilege” with teacher guidance.

11. The difference between a right and a privilege is discussed using relevant examples.  The teacher engages the students in discussion.

Rights: rights are irrevocable entitlements held by all citizens.

Privileges: privileges are special entitlements granted by someone in authority.

12. Students are then asked whether they are aware that they have rights as children.  Students’ responses are discussed.

13. Some of the rights entitled to citizens are then shown to students.  These would have been written or printed onto strips and are presented to students one at a time for discussed.

Some suggested rights include (any two can be used):

a.    citizens have a right to

·         life

·         liberty

·         security of the person

·         enjoyment of property

·         the right not to be deprived thereof except by due process of law.

b.    citizens have a right to equality of treatment from any
public authority in the exercise of any functions

14. Thoughts are recorded on a chart using symbols, illustrations and words.  This is followed by journaling where students record their personal reflections.

15. Several real life examples are presented by the teacher and students are asked to differentiate between a right and a privilege using these examples. This is done as a whole class activity.

16. Students are then placed in pairs or small groups according to the teacher’s discretion. Each group is presented with a scenario related to the theme (water).  They are asked to discuss and record their opinions as they examine the scenarios.

17. Each group presents and others are given an opportunity to ask questions, state their own opinions etc. while observing appropriate etiquette. Teacher guides process to further build understanding of “rights and privileges”.

18. Students are asked to copy some of the rights from the strips using cursive writing.

19. Students use cursive writing to neatly and legibly state in two or three sentences what they think would happen if they had no rights. The process of writing legibly is monitored by the teacher.

Water for Life

 

20. Students are shown a video clip or pictures of people exercising. Teacher guides the discussion to elicit what happens to the body during and after exercising – sweat, thirst.

21. Students give suggestions as to why they think this happens to the body.

22. The class engages in discussion on the importance of drinking water after physical activity. This session is guided by the teacher.

23. Students get into groups and create a slogan or statement that encourages others to drink water after physical activity.

24. Students make a card, a bookmark or an ornament on which this slogan or statement can be used. Illustrations, pictures or drawings related to water and physical activity can be used to enhance the finished product.

 

Resources:

Factual passage, flipchart paper or bristol board, pictures related to passage, glue, paint, crayons, markers, paintbrushes.

Printed strips – rights of citizens.

Video clip or pictures showing physical activity

Card paper (Bristol board, construction paper etc.), pictures located and printed or cut outs, paper plate (depending on selection of activity).

Assessment:

Journaling

Checklist for discussion.

WASA and WRA

 

The Water and Sewerage Authority of Trinidad and Tobago (WASA provides the following
services to the public:

  • Installation of new water connections
  • Water trucking services
  • New sewer connections
  • Maintenance of water and sewer connections

Another organisation found within the Water And Sewerage Authority (WASA) of Trinidad and Tobago, is the Water Resources Agency (WRA) Division, which was established in 1976.

Some of the functions of the Water Resources Agency (WRA) include:

  • managing the country’s water resources for sustainability
  • promoting development, conservation and protection of water resources.
  • monitoring and assessment of water resources with respect to quantity and quality.
  • Undertake water resources planning, investigations and development.

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T:Water

Learning Plan: 6 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration: 2 days

Topic:  Water in all things

Context:

In this learning plan students will learn more about water and its properties. This knowledge will allow them to use water judiciously to perform everyday tasks. Since it is important to acquire vocabulary that will enable them to share and acquire knowledge about water, activities in this plan are designed to facilitate vocabulary development.

CONSIDERATIONS:

HFLE:
Choose an item.

Choose an item.

Literacy

☐Reading

RWriting

R Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

Assessment for Learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         name common substances that can be dissolved in water

·         explain the terms: solute, solvent and solution

·         conduct experiments to demonstrate substances that can be dissolved in water

·         orally expresses self in both language forms with attention to pronunciation and enunciation skills

·         answer at least three literal, two inferential and one evaluative questions orally and in writing from texts presented

·         research and interpret bits of information presented in a variety of media including symbols, signs, charts and graphs

·         use prefixes and suffixes to make and use new words in writing (prefixes: ‘in’, ‘im’, ‘mis’, ‘pre’, ‘non ,

·         suffixes: ‘ish’,‘ness’, ‘ist’, ‘ous’,  )

·         apply the process approach to writing descriptive paragraphs

·         write a paragraph showing voice on familiar topics discussed or on personal experiences recounted

·         communicate findings and justify decisions made using appropriate vocabulary. use technical jargon to explain the steps of the process used to conduct experiments and research

 

Tasks: Water Solutions

1.    The teacher reads aloud text on the topic solutions, which includes the terms “solute” and “solvent”

2.    Using think-alouds the teacher models how she makes sense of the text. (Care is taken to highlight the terms: solvent, solute and solution)

 

3.    After the read-aloud, students are invited to do a “quick write” in their journals where they record what they know about the topic solutions. A few students may be invited to share their thoughts. The teacher encourages use of the recently leant vocabulary (solute, solvent and solution)

4.    Students are then placed into small groups (three to four students). Each group is presented with data cards on which definitions for the terms solute, solvent and solution are provided. (See Appendix A for sample text and diagrams that can also be used for the exercise)

5.    Students discuss the points on the cards, sharing the following:

·         What they understand

·         Personal experiences they have had with making solutions

·         What still confuses them

6.    The teacher moves through the class and offers guidance and direction as necessary.

7.    A whole class discussion follows where students share their thoughts about what they discussed in their groups.

8.    After the discussion, students are encouraged to ask questions that they may still have. These questions are recorded on a chart

Water Writers

 

Shared Writing: Defining Solute, Solvent and Solution

9.    The “concept of definition procedure[1] is used to build definitions for solvent, solute and solution.

10. The three key elements of definitions are modelled as necessary.

Ø  Class: What is it?

Ø  Properties that distinguish it from others: What is it like?

Ø  Examples of the concept: What are some examples?

11. In a whole class discussion students work with the teacher to build word definitions for solvent, solute and solution.

12. The first drafts are posted on chart paper in the classroom.

13. Students are invited to revisit their journals and to make adjustments to their entries. They may add new information, make corrections and/or deletions as they see fit or make new entries.

14. During this time teacher confers with students who noticeably had difficulty with the concepts being taught.

15. Conferences may also be held with students who requested a conference with the teacher.

A Quest for Solutions

Part 1:

Each student is given the anticipation guide below:

True

Statement

False

 

When a solution is left to stand, settling will occur.

 
 

The solvent is the substance in which another is dissolved.

 
 

After stirring 2 tablespoons of sugar into a glass of water, a solution will not be formed.

 
 

A solute is more likely to dissolve in warm water.

 
 

A solution can only be formed with a solid and a liquid.

 

16. The teacher directs students to visit the site: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html

1.    Another suitable passage may be provided.

17. Some students will work independently or in pairs while the teacher does Guided Reading with one group.

18. The teacher, will observe students in the Guided Reading group as they read through the text and offer guidance as needed.

·         Students are reminded of how fix-up strategies are used to make sense of diagrams, charts and text as required.

·         Students are encouraged to generate questions and to search for answers for those questions as they read through the passage. (Remember that the teacher must have modelled any reading strategy several times before students can be expected to use it independently).

·         Students are also encouraged to look for answers to the lingering questions they had after the earlier session.

Part 2:

19. Students will be placed in groups of three or four. Groupings should vary as much as is practicable from the ones used in the earlier session.

Materials provided for each group could include:

Ø  5 Teaspoons

Ø  4 Bottles of water (250ml each)

Ø  8 Clear plastic cups(250ml)

Ø  Salt

Ø  Brown sugar

Ø  Granulated sugar

Ø  Gelatin (Jello)

Ø  Sand

Ø  Marbles

Ø  Packets of ketchup

Ø  Sesame seeds

Ø  Time pieces (watches, clocks, stopwatches etc)

Ø  Recording template

Ø  Reporting template

Ø  Labels: Solute, Solvent and Solution

(Students are also given rags and/or paper towels, place mats or old newspapers.)

20. Students will be informed of safety procedures before they begin to work.

Ø  No one is to taste any of the substances provided

Ø  Spills, on  the floor especially, should be cleaned up immediately with a paper towel

Ø  If anything gets into the eyes, the eyes should be flushed with clean water immediately. The teacher must be notified if this has happened.

Ø  If anything spills on to their clothing, the rag is to be used to help tidy themselves.

Ø  Hands are to be washed thoroughly after the experiments are done

Ø  All material that is left after the exercise is to be placed tidily on the desk.

Aim: To discover materials or substances that can be dissolved in water.

21. Directions:

            In your groups assign the following roles:

                                I.   Recorder: Will record the results of putting the   materials into the water, stirring and leaving to stand for at least 1minute.

                               II.   Time Keeper: Will keep track of the time. The groups will have fifteen minutes to conduct all their experiments

                             III.   Reporting Officer: Will summarise and report the group findings to the class using a given template.

                            IV.   1 tsp of each substance is to be placed in 125 ml of water and stirred for 30seconds. (The teacher explains the abbreviations as necessary).

                              V.   After stirring, the cup is to remain untouched for at least another minute.

                            VI.   Observations are to be recorded on the template provided and conclusions drawn. Conclusions are also to be written on the recording template.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recording Template:

What was added to the water?

 

 

Results:

 

Conclusion: Is this a solution?

Were the particles of the substance added to the water still being seen?

 

Were there particles settled at the bottom after a minute?

e.g. Salt

Water

The salt particles were no longer seen after 30 seconds of stirring.

The salt particles were no longer seen after standing for 1 minute.

Salt can dissolve in water to form a solution

     
     

22. The groups will determine in what order they will test to see which of the materials given are soluble in water. The teacher will direct the process as necessary.

23. The reporting officer completes the reporting template with help from the other members of the group.

Reporting Template

Group: _____

_________________ dissolved in the water. These are called ____________.

The water dissolved the substances mentioned above. The water is called the _________________.                                                                      

A solution is formed when   _______________________________________

24. Students are asked to place a bottle of water and the other substances (Salt, Brown sugar, etc.) correctly under the labels “Solutes”, “Solvent” and “Solutions” after/while completing the report. They are asked to justify their classification choices.

Part 3:

25. In a plenary session, students share their findings about solutes, water as a solvent and solutions.

26. The questions placed on the chart earlier in the day are reviewed to see if any have been answered. (Answers are written in where applicable.)

27. Students are asked to write in complete sentences the answers to three (3) literal, two (2) inferential and one (1) evaluative question based on information garnered from the experiments.

Exploring Water Words

insoluble, immiscible, impossible, misunderstood, pre-assess, non-compliant

squeamish, wetness, chemist, aqueous

 

28. Students use their dictionaries (online versions can be used where the resource is available) to find the meanings of the given words.

29. The words are discussed to identify possible relationships with the word “water”.

30. The highlighted parts are drawn to students’ attention. Through discussion and appropriate questioning the terms “prefix” and “suffix” are elicited.

31. Using appropriate resources, students work in teams to state the meaning of the prefixes and suffixes. In their groups they work to generate a list of words that also include the prefix or suffix they investigated.

32. Lists are posted as a portion of the class’ Word Wall.

Students are encouraged to be creative in the way in which they design their postings for the word wall.

 

Resources:  Data cards, templates, teaspoons, bottles of water (250ml each),  clear plastic cups(250ml), salt, brown sugar, granulated sugar, gelatin (Jello), sand, marbles, packets of ketchup, sesame seeds, time pieces (watches, clocks, stopwatches etc.),recording template, reporting template, labels: Solute, Solvent and Solution., Comprehension worksheet

 

Assessment:

·         Oral questioning

·         Comprehension Exercise

·         Observation

·         Worksheets

   

Appendix A

Review of Matter

Matter is made up of molecules

Molecules in a Solid             Molecules in a Liquid               Molecules in a gas

Matter can exist in three states solid, liquid or gas.

When two types of matter are mixed together and the molecules from both substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture the result is called a solution.

                                         +                                                 =            

See http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html  for other suggestions.

A solution is formed when a solid, a liquid or a gas is combined (put together) with another solid, liquid or gas and after stirring the particles become evenly distributed throughout the combined substance.

e.g. When a teaspoon of salt is stirred thoroughly in water it dissolves. The salt particles are not seen clustered or gathered together in any one part of the glass of water. If the glass is left standing the salt particles do not settle to the bottom of the glass. We then say a solution was formed.

See the following: http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution2.html

In a solution formed with water, the water is called the solvent. In any solution, the solvent is the substance in which another was dissolved.   Water is the most common solvent. However, there are other solvents

In a solution formed with water, the solute was the substance that was dissolved or the substance that became less visible (to the naked eye) after stirring it into the water.

e.g. After a teaspoon of salt is thoroughly stirred into water, the salt particles are not seen by the naked eye. The salt is the solute in the solution.

[1] This strategy was described by Schwartz and Raphael (1985). It is also known as the word map strategy. It teaches students the elements of a good definition.

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T:Water

Learning Plan: 7 of   7

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water, I Use

Duration:

Topic:  The Sounds of Water

Context:

In this learning experience, sounds are created using melodic instruments to mimic water noises. There is also a focus on listening strategies to help students maximize their comprehension of aural input by using speech, media and melodic instruments. Using water sounds, students will be taught to hone their listening skills to identify relevant and non-relevant information.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:
Cooperation

Managing Feelings

Literacy

RReading

☐Writing

R Oral Communication

R Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         sequentially recite the Spanish names for the months of the year

·         identify the month of their birthday in Spanish

·         play two ostinati (repeated patterns) on melodic instruments to accompany familiar songs, using appropriate technique

·         give positive attention to the work of peers

·         use listening strategies to help make meaning during and after listening to a selection

·         answer four literal, two inferential and one evaluative questions about texts

·         express self clearly with ideas and in speech

·         use the different tenses of verbs within context ( decision needs to be made on the verbs to be dealt with in this term)

·         use coordinating conjunctions to join two simple sentences to form compound sentences

·         change Creole patterns to Standard English contextually

·         critically view and listen to a variety of media materials with a focus on simple audio works

·         identify overt and implied messages, with support and direction, in simple audio media texts

·         express personal thoughts and feelings about some simple audio media works.

   

 

 

Activities:

 

Los meses del año

1.    Students sit in a circle. The names of the months of the year in English are called by the teacher and students stand only when their birth month is called. They are then asked to listen carefully as the names of the months are called (and repeated) in Spanish. (enero, febrero, marzo, abril, mayo, junio, julio, Agosto, septiembre, octubre, noviembre, diciembre). The previous activity is now repeated with the names of the months being called in Spanish. Students are given the opportunity to say the Spanish as well.

2.    Students are asked to volunteer to state their birth month in Spanish. As each month is called, all students with that birth month would stand and call the name of the month in Spanish. Teacher should be careful to ensure accurate pronunciation and intonation. Students would be assisted in pronouncing the names of the months they may not know.

3.    All students sit and recite the months of the year in Spanish and raise their hands when their month is called.

4.    The students are instructed to stand in groups according to the month of their birth. They repeat all the months of the year in Spanish; when their month is called they do any action. The students then stand in line according to the month of their birth. The groups are sequenced accurately beginning with enero, and ending with diciembre. The line of students walks around class saying the months of the year in Spanish.   

5.    Students stand in a circle according to their birthdates. Each child calls his/her birth month from enero until diciembre. Pupils identify the months (in Spanish) in which there are no birthdays.

Poem (Los meses)

6.    Students suggest activities associated with each month of the year. (The names of the months are called in Spanish.) Pupils first listen as the poem is read by the teacher, then repeat each line with correct expression. Pupils could be placed into groups to recite different stanzas of the poem.

·           Teacher produces a rain stick (some other melodic instrument) and demonstrates how to play two repeated patterns (ostinati) while singing the months of the year in Spanish.

·           Students, in groups of three or five use other melodic instruments (e.g. plastic bottles filled with beans or rice) to play two repeated patterns along to the song.

·           Students give positive attention to peers as each group presents their ostaniti.

Listening for Water

6.    An audio recording is presented by the teacher. The recorded text focuses on the theme “Water”.

7.    Students are directed to listen for all instances when they hear water being used in the story. E.g. drinking or washing etc.

8.    The recording is paused at critical points and students are guided to use strategies to aid in meaning building. For example, the teacher reminds students to think of what they just heard and asks them to determine if it is related to anything from a previous experience or lesson.

9.    Students are asked to make predictions about the next segment of the story. The teacher resumes the audio recording and the students listen carefully while reflecting on their predictions to determine whether their predictions were accurate.

10. Teacher helps students to focus on both overt and implied messages in the audio text. E.g. What was making the tapping noise on the window? Why do you think Marley’s clothes were drenched as she entered the living room?

11. Students are placed into groups of three and they are given an opportunity to discuss the details of the story. Students share knowledge with other group members and also ask questions to clarify ambiguity.

12. Each group discussion is facilitated by the teacher who guides students to take turns orally, clearly expressing their ideas.

13. Each group is given a multiple choice questionnaire which comprises of literal, inferential and evaluative questions. The groups then complete the questionnaire.

14. Each group is given an opportunity to share their thoughts and feelings about the audio recording with the class.

Water links    

  1. Ask for two volunteers. Give each volunteer a separate sentence (e.g. ‘It was raining heavily this morning.’ and ‘I still came to school.’).
  2. Explain that you would like to put the two sentences together to make one long sentence but to do this you need to add a word that will join the sentences together.
  3. Show the students the following conjunctions – and, so, but, if. Ask them to pick the conjunction that best fits the sentence so that it still makes sense.
  4. After the children have chosen the conjunction, show them how to rewrite the new sentence with the correct conjunction and punctuation (eg ‘It was raining heavily this morning but I still came to school.’).
  5. Game: Divide students into groups of five and let each team choose a name for themselves. Place the team names in a bag/container and randomly choose a team to begin. Now say, “Team ‘team name’ your challenge for 10 points is to use one of these words (conjunctions) correctly (or, so, but, if) to join these two sentences: I was really thirsty. I drank an entire bottle of water.
  6. If the team does not get the correct answer, the question is passed on to a randomly chosen team and is awarded 5 points for the correct answer plus a chance to earn 10 points with a new question.
  7. This goes on for three rounds.
  8. Part 2: Each team is asked to make up a short sentence. Students say their sentence and any Creole patterns are identified and changed to Standard English.
  9. Sentences from pairs of teams are written on the whiteboard and students are asked to use a word (conjunction) to join the pairs of sentences.
 

Resources:

rain stick, plastic bottles filled with beads, beans and rice.

 

 Cloze sentence: Once upon a time, there was a little drop of water called Glug who lived in a river. He …

·          

Assessment:

·         Oral questioning

·         Completion of cloze sentence

·          Worksheets

Los Meses

Enero enero we say “Happy New Year”.

Febrero, marzo, kite flying time is here!

 

Abril, mayo, junio, the term is almost done,

Julio, and agosto: time for play and fun.

 

Septiembre, septiembre: back to school we go

 

Octubre, noviembre: lights begin to glow.

 

Then it’s diciembre: Christmas we all know

Estos son los meses del año!

©C. W. Smith (2013)

Unit 2

LEARNING UNIT:

 

 

Class:   Standard 2             Theme:  Water, water everywhere       Topic: The Water – I see     
Estimated frame:
  4 weeks

 

Context:

 

Our environment is comprised of various resources that we use on a regular basis. Water is one such resource. We need to teach and practise good water conservation techniques to ensure that we have a readily available supply. Students should learn the various causes of water pollution as well as its effects on our environment. In addition, they should learn ways in which they can prevent water pollution because this knowledge can determine the sustainability of our water supply in the future.

Outcomes:

 

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         recognise that pollution negatively affects the environment and should not be allowed

·         identify in Spanish elements of a simplified water cycle

·         appreciate the importance of water to life

·         justify the importance of the water cycle in making water available for life processes

·         assess water conservation habits that incorporate reduce, reuse and recycle

·         create a poster using the elements of layout and design

·         use ideas /sounds from the daily use of water to influence movement possibilities

·         describe ways in which respect for the environment can be demonstrated

·         describe the importance of caring for the environment

·         take part in an environmental project

·         solve a variety of word problems from real-life, using problem solving strategies and mental strategies

·         use estimation skills to determine reasonableness of answers

·         develop an understanding of the properties of solids and plane shapes

·         solve problems involving solids and plane shapes

Oral Communication:

·         know appropriate listening behaviours

·         know skills of oral expression applicable to level

·         know strategies to aid comprehension at the pre-listening, during-listening and post-listening stages

·         know how to use the 5Ws+H to gain meaning from audio/audio-visual texts

·         know appropriate listening and speaking behaviours

·         basic and applicable contrastive analysis of Creole and Standard English

·         know basic skills in Standard English pronunciation and enunciation

·         know features of Standard English phonology applicable to this level

Literary Appreciation

·         students will know how to examine the elements of a story in selected literary texts

·         know about the appropriateness of language as used in narration and dialogue

Reading

·         apply appropriate phonic skills and strategies in reading

·         recall vocabulary knowledge in speaking, reading and writing

demonstrate the meaning of figurative language in texts

·         read grade level texts (fiction and non-fiction) proficiently

·         apply reading skills strategically

·         read to learn

·         apply appropriate reading comprehension skills and strategies explicitly taught to make meaning

·         locate and infer information using a variety of text features and structures

·         use research to acquire meaning

Writing

·         know how to write cursive through penmanship exercises

·         know the rules of punctuation and capitalization

·         add suffixes to root words to make and use new words in context

·         how to combine simple sentences to form compound sentences

·         how to write friendly letters using a process approach, including the address on an envelope (stand alone)

·         understand the stages of the process approach in writing

·         know how to write two descriptive paragraphs that appeal to the senses using the process approach

·         use technical jargon to show meaning

·         use context to arrive at word meanings

·         know how to use spelling rules when writing:

·         convert the spoken Creole patterns into the equivalent Standard English patterns

Media & Information Literacy

·         understand that all media are constructions where authors and illustrators construct a reality for their audiences

·         identify selected media forms and explain what techniques are used to create meaning.

Learning Plans:

 

Learning plan 1 –Water Around and Around

Learning Plan 2 – We Can Solve This…

Learning Plan 3 – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle Water

Learning Plan 4 – Water Conservation

Resources:

Learning plan 1 – Stationery, pictures of water, sun, sea, river, cloud, rain, earth/land, chart showing the water cycle, PowerPoint presentation, worksheets, flashcards and story.

Learning plan 2 – Stationery, worksheets and materials collected from home.

Learning plan 3 – Stationery, cut-outs, newspaper articles, craft materials collected by students, charts.

Learning plan 4 – Stationery, pictures and story.

Assessment

·         Discussion

·         Oral questioning

·         Presentation

·         Observation Checklists

·         Rubrics 

·         Worksheets

UNIT TWO: My Country: The Environment of T & T: Water

Learning Plan: 1 of  4

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water- I see

Duration:

Topic:  Water around and around

Context:

It is exciting and enjoyable for students to discover where water comes from and where it goes. Learning about the water cycle gives students an insight into the importance of protecting our environment.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:
you may choose at least one…
Effective Communication

Choose an item.

Literacy

RReading

☐Writing

R Oral Communication

R Literary Appreciation

R Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy leave blank if math outcomes are not addressed

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

R ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

R Assessment for learning

Outcomes:

·         explain the processes in the water cycle

·         label a diagram of the water cycle

·         identify in Spanish elements of a simplified water cycle

·         write paragraphs with logical organization of topics sentences and supporting details

·         create a dance sequence using at least four movements

·         discuss possible themes and main ideas in selected stories and poems

·         identify and use personification in literary texts

·         apply the process approach to descriptive paragraphs

·         construct sentences using synonyms

·         read text fluently to aid comprehension

·         determine the contextual meaning of words and phrases in texts.

Activities:

The Water Cycle: A Watery Story

1.    Students are given an explanation of the water cycle. A simple power point presentation can be used to assist.  Students would be given meanings of the words which explain different aspects of the water cycle: precipitation, evaporation/transpiration and condensation. Other words relating to the water cycle e.g. river, snow, water, cloud, sun, etc. are written on flashcards.

Water Talks

2.    Students are presented with individual copies of the story of the life cycle of a drop of water. They are encouraged to read with appropriate fluency, intonation and diction to aid comprehension.(text attached)

3.    In small groups, they discuss the possible themes and main idea in the text. A class discussion will follow.

4.     Students are put into four groups. One person from each group chooses a card. Labels on cards include: (a) water in the pond/sea/lake (b) rain (c) water in the clouds (d) snow/hail.

5.    Each group member reviews the text and quietly thinks about what it will be like as a drop of water in the environment stated on the card.

6.    Discussions include how they feel in their present environment, how they arrived there and what might happen to them next.

7.    Students will be guided to apply the process approach to write a paragraph about himself/herself describing his/her life in the water cycle using the guidelines given by the teacher. E.g. I am a drop of water. Right now, I live .. Very soon I will.. Then I will ..

8.    Students would be put into new groups each comprising of at least one member from each of the previous groups. They are encouraged to share their writings with each other.

Water movements

9.    The entire class performs actions to demonstrate the following:

a)    falling rain

b)    water in pond/sea/lake etc.

c)    water vapour moving upwards

d)    clouds forming and getting fuller

10. Four students are asked to volunteer to come forward and perform one of the aforementioned actions. The rest of the class would imitate the action, and name the word associated with it. E.g. when the action is being performed to represent the rain falling, the class would say the word “precipitation”.

11. The four actions would then be performed in succession to create a four-movement dance sequence. Groups of 1 to 4 students are asked to perform the dance sequence.

Labeling and Writing

12. Students are shown an unlabeled chart based on the water cycle. Through guided questioning students review what was previously learnt about the water cycle especially the terminology – precipitation, evaporation, transpiration and condensation.

13. They are given the opportunity to use the flashcards to label objects in the picture e.g. river, sea, water, cloud, sun, etc.

14. Students would be given individual worksheets similar to the chart used in the previous exercise. Students are required to draw arrows to show the water cycle and insert the words precipitation, evaporation/transpiration and condensation in their correct positions on the worksheet.

Agua y sol

15.  Students would be introduced to the game “Spanish echo”. They are shown pictures of the following: water, sun, sea, river, cloud, rain, earth/land. The students name each picture as it is shown and the teacher “echoes” the Spanish name (el agua, el sol, el mar, el río, la nube, la lluvia, la tierra). (The teacher may call the words in Spanish). The students then repeat the Spanish word called by the teacher. Careful attention is paid to accurate pronunciation of the words. Students should be given the opportunity to continue using these words in other activities.

Try Another Word

16. Students once again review the text focusing on the words in bold type. They are asked to suggest other words which convey the same meaning and can be used instead of these words.

17. The word synonym is presented to students who will be led to give a definition of the word through guided discussion.

18. Students will rewrite/reread four of the sentences replacing the word in bold type with an appropriate synonym.

Resources

·         Stationery: paper, pencil, marker etc.

·         ICTs: Pictures of water, sun, sea, river, cloud, rain, earth/land, chart showing the water cycle, PowerPoint presentation

·         Worksheets with water cycle, flashcards

·         Literature: A Watery Story

Assessment:

Class set of cross word puzzle (designed using puzzlemaker.com) Letters may be written into the puzzle before copying to give students extra support if needed.

 

Individual or group performance

   

The Water Cycle

Across

  1. A small body of water
  2. We get water when this melts.
  3. Water evaporates from the leaves and stems of plants.

Down

  1. Water changes into water vapour.
  2. Another name for rainfall
  3. When water vapour changes into water droplets
  4. These form when water droplets come together.
  5. My heat causes water to evaporate.
  6. A large body of water
  7. It carries water to the sea.

A Watery Story

I was a drop of water living happily in the sea with my siblings. As the breeze blew over us, we moved around each other near the surface. The sun shone on us constantly and our temperature increased steadily. We were soon changed into a gas called water vapour. We felt much lighter than before and we were able to ascend very quickly. We rose higher and higher and as the temperature decreased and we changed back into drops of water. Several of us bunched together to form a cloud. As strong breezes kept blowing us across the sky, many more of my friends joined us. We became heavier and heavier and then…. we burst apart and started descending as rain! We caused so much precipitation that land below us became flooded.

I fell on a very high mountain with some of my friends. Here it is so cold that we transformed into snow. I am sure that as whenever the temperature increases we will melt and flow down the mountainside as water. We will continue moving around each other flowing into a river on our journey to the sea. Can you predict what will happen to us when the sun shines on us and our temperature increases?

UNIT ONE: My Country: The Environment of T & T: Water

Learning Plan: 2 of   4

Class: Standard 2  Term: 2

Theme:  Water – I see

Duration:

Topic:  We Can Solve This

Context:

Water pollution and flooding have caused many of the challenges facing humans.  Ironically, it is human activity that has caused both problems to arise in many instances.  By making students aware of the effects of water pollution and flooding, we increase the likelihood that they would become willing to prevent, and assist with endeavours to deal with both.

CONSIDERATIONS:

R HFLE:
Understanding Consequences

Literacy

RReading

RWriting

R Oral Communication

☐ Literary Appreciation

☐ Media & Information Literacy

Numeracy

☐ Problem Solving

☐ Critical thinking

☐ Communication

☐ Representation

☐ Reasoning

R ICT Skills

 

R Differentiated Instruction

Assessment for learning

Outcomes:

At the end of this learning experience students will:

·         explain causes of water pollution

·         outline effects of water pollution

·         devise strategies to solve the problem of water pollution

·         explain how pollution can result in flooding

·         state how human activity can result in flooding

·         explain their roles and responsibilities in the prevention of flooding due to pollution

·         express ideas that contribute to the enhancement of the environment

·         use listening strategies to help make meaning during and after listening to a selection

·         give positive attention to the work of peers

·         use the “5Ws+H” and simple graphic organizers to help gain and express meaning from texts

·         answer literal, inferential and evaluative questions about texts

·         use and interpret simple non-verbal communication

·         construct sentences using antonyms

·         know appropriate listening and speaking behaviours

·         know basic skills in Standard English pronunciation and enunciation

·         explore ways in which caring for the land prevents flooding

·         select appropriate phonic skills to decode multi-syllabic words to read literary texts.

Tasks:

Questions only…

1.    Stimulus material is presented to students (pictures, videos or any available media showing the effects of flooding). (Note: students should be guided to pay attention to details such as consequences of flooding, ways people are affected etc.) After the presentation, student record their observations.

2.    Questions are presented to students(sentence strips/ white board/projector)

·         When does flooding occur?

·         What are the possible causes of flooding?

·         How can flooding be prevented?

·         Who is responsible for dealing with the problem of flooding?

·         Why should flooding concern us?

·         Where can we find information that will help us solve flooding?

3.    Students engage in a general discussion on identifying the 5 W’s and H which can be used in the construction of questions. They also establish a format to how questions are formulated and asked. Questions are developed based on the theme of flooding.

4.    Activity of “questions only…” is done where students are divided into 2 teams. Teams challenge each other to create and ask questions based on water pollution. They are informed that questions should begin with who, what, where, why, when and how (5 W’s and H).

Game: Questions only.

The objective of this game is to give children practice in formulating questions.

Class is divided into two groups. Each team selects a name that reflects the theme of water pollution e.g. ‘Water Posse’. One member of the first team poses a question to a member of the opposing team. That person is expected to respond with another question that starts with the words “who, what, when, why, how or where.” They continue until they have asked three questions or until one member is unable to formulate a question within the time allotted. The side that is able to pose the most questions after the allotted time emerges the winner.

 

Rules:

·        Questions must start with any one of the six “question” words.

·        No lengthy delay in creating question.

·        Students should not respond with the question they were asked.

·        Questions should not be repeated more than twice.

·        Statements are not allowed

Note: Teachers can adapt or create rules for the game.

Just hear this!

5.    Students will work in pairs or groups of three. Each group is assigned a question based on the topics “water pollution and/or flooding”.

Suggested questions:

·            What is water pollution?

·            What are some causes of water pollution?

·            What are the effects of water pollution?

·            Who is affected by water pollution?

·            Who is responsible for the prevention of water pollution?

·            Why is it important to keep the waters clean?

·            How can water pollution result in flooding?

·            How can care for the land help to reduce or prevent flooding?

·            When is the best time to start dealing with the causes of water pollution?

·            How can we prevent flooding?

·            How can you measure the extent of damage caused by flooding? (question to spark “thinking outside of the box”)

·            Where can we direct our energies/efforts to prevent flooding?

6.    Each group is given the challenge of putting together a presentation which would provide answers to the assigned questions. Students are encouraged to use visual aids (e.g. charts, props etc.) Students should be given adequate time to do their research and put their presentations together. The teacher must be a facilitator in this process and also offer guidance in presentation skills (e.g. posture, eye contact, diction etc.). (Suggestion: Students can invite others to the presentation.)

7.    On presentation day students will view, listen and respond to each group’s presentation.

8.    Using an appropriate graphic organiser the teacher summarises all the key points of the day’s presentations. Points highlighted should include “Causes of Effects of and Solution to water pollution and flooding”.

Totally opposite!

9.    Simple sentences are presented using sentence strips on the chalkboard or using other suitable media (e.g. worksheets, charts, overhead projector (OHP), smartboard, multi-media projector (MMP) etc.). In these sentences, the words for which antonyms are to be provided are underlined. Students are asked to read these sentences quietly. Students are invited to suggest words which are opposite in meaning to the underlined words.

Suggested sentences:

The water from the spring is dirty.

The river was too shallow to cross.

Keeping our rivers and seas clean is a bad thing.

There was a light shower of rain before the flood.

10. The word antonym is presented to students who through guided discussion will be led to give a definition of the word. Students are then presented with other words and seek antonyms for them.

11. Students will choose any three pairs of antonyms from the generated list.  They will be required to use each pair in a sentence. The way in which the pairs are used should highlight the fact that they are antonyms. They share sentences with peers. Feedback is given and clarifications are made where necessary.

Note: Students can work independently, in pairs or in a small group with the teacher.

Resources:

·         Stationery: paper, pencil

·         Worksheets

·         Sourced materials from home

Assessment:

Worksheets

Individual questioning